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پرسشهای یکی از دوستان - بخش سوم

نویسنده: ابتهاج | تاریخ: 24 خرداد 1393 | بازدیدها: 2429

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بخش سوم پرسشها
پرسش ششم: Why do some firms continue producing products even if they are losing money? What is the condition for the continuing operation with loss?
پاسخ: A firm continues to operate in the short run when earning an economic loss to minimize the loss, because it has to pay the fixed costs, i.e. contractual obligations, rent, insurance, other continuing business expenses, etc., there may be costs that will have to be paid out in the near future whether the business continues or not.
If the firm generates enough revenue to cover its variable costs, then it is better off operating. When total revenue exceeds variable costs, the firm will lose less than if they shut down. This happens because every dollar of revenue that exceeds the variable costs will offset the fixed costs.
For example:
FC = 100 and VC = 300. If the firm continues to operate and generates $350 in revenue, it will have $400 in total costs and a net loss of $50. If it shut down instead, VC would drop to $0, but FC would still be $100 even when shut down. When shut down, TC = $100 and revenue = $0. So the net loss of shutting down would be $100.
The reason the firm stays operating is not to make a profit in the short run. The only purpose of remaining operating is to lose as little as possible.


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پرسش هفتم: Why does market fail when there are public goods?
پاسخ: The main reason is that private sector producers will not supply public goods to people because they cannot be sure of making an economic profit. The inability of the market to provide public goods is a failure because nobody would pay for the goods though they are essential to society.
The problem arises because the nature of public good. It is non-excludable (you can't really exclude the other person from using the good, it's like street lamp) and non-diminishable (the benefit for the subsequent user will not be reduced). People will tend to wait for others to pay for the good and then use it for free, it is the 'free rider' problem.
Therefore, government will need to intervene by providing public goods out of general taxation.


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موضوعات: اقتصاد, اقتصاد عمومی, English

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