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پرسشهای یکی از دوستان - بخش چهارم

نویسنده: ابتهاج | تاریخ: 24 خرداد 1393 | بازدیدها: 2735

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بخش چهارم پرسشها
پرسش هشتم:
Explain the difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage.
پاسخ: Absolute advantage is used to describe a situation in which a person, corporate entity or country can produce something at a price that is lower than others.
Comparative advantage refers to a situation in which the same type of commodity can be produced with a lower opportunity cost than others.
The difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage lies in the difference between the advantages inherent in the two factors.
Absolute advantage is focused on the advantage of cost, while comparative advantage is based on opportunity cost. Also, absolute advantage provides more benefits in trade than comparative advantage.
Comparative advantage occurs when a product can be produced more efficiently than other people, companies or countries producing the same good.


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پرسش نهم و نهایی: When externality occurs why is governmental intervention Justified? Use graph in your answer.
پاسخ: Externality is a situation in which a private economy lacks sufficient incentives to create a potential market in some good, and the nonexistence of this market results in a loss of efficiency.
Negative externalities of production produce marginal external costs (MEC) above Marginal private costs (MC, the supply curve). Since these MEC are external to the firms they do not enter into a private firm's calculations of profit maximization so the private firm produces until P=MC. But this creates a deadweight loss since at this level the total social costs (MSC = MEC + MC) are greater than the price, which measures the marginal benefits that people attach to this good. So it costs society more to produce than people value it, which is DWL.
Graphically,
پرسش نهم


So in this case government intervention can reduce or eliminate DWL. A tax that is just equal to the MEC, or a regulation that limits industry output to Y*, would reduce the DWL to exactly zero. Consumers should pay more, P*, since that is the true cost.


منابع:
کتب:
Principles of Economics - Greg Mankiw
Micro Economics - Greg Mankiw
Basic Economics - Thomas Sowell
Principles of Microeconomics - Libby Rittenberg & Timothy Tregarthen
پول و کریدیت - سید مسعود
اقتصاد پول و بانکداری - حمید بهمنپور و سعید مشیری
Introduction to Economics - R. Preston McAfee & Tracy R. Lewis

انترنت:
ویکی پیدیا فارسی و انگلیسی
http://bookboon.com/
http://www.amosweb.com/
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/
http://www.daneshnamah.com/
http://www.wiley.com/
http://answers.yahoo.com/
http://faculty.lebow.drexel.edu/
http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/
http://www.econlib.org/

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موضوعات: اقتصاد, اقتصاد عمومی, English

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